Living With Earthquakes and Volcanoes: The Slideshows
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Most active volcanoes
Volcanoes can cause damage by ash flows, release of gases, mudflows, lava flows, and landslides. Earthquakes may be associated with volcanic hazards, especially as a precursor to an eruption.
However, earthquakes can cause disasters without the help of a volcano. Earthquakes generate seismic waves that can release great energy.
But if the earthquake occurs in an area that is not populated, it is not a human disaster. Volcanic damage occurs because of the products generated by an eruption. The type of eruption is important. For instance, a quiet lava eruption gives human enough time to evacuate an area. Violent eruptions that occur with little warning are sometimes difficult to avoid. Many people do not believe that volcanoes can cause much damage, and refuse to move. Volcanoes erupt differently, depending on the composition and thickness of the erupting lava, the amount of gas in the parent magma, and force of the eruption.
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Pacaya lay dormant for at least a century before erupting violently in Much of its activity is Strombolian but also includes ash eruptions and lava flows. In May , Pacaya erupted violently, ejecting debris and ash columns up to 1, meters 4,ft. Ash rained down on a number of cities including the capital, Guatemala City. The eruption damaged hundreds of homes and killed several people including local news reporter Anibal Archila who was struck by volcanic debris. Erebus is remarkable because its low level but persistent activity allows volcanologists to study the Strombolian eruptive system very close to the active vents hundreds of metres.
As soon as the steam leaves one of these vents, it freezes, eventually forming massive snow chimneys. Additional photography: Dreamstime.
Volcanoes - Katmai National Park & Preserve (U.S. National Park Service)
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Climbing Nevis Peak unguided. The study of trenches also gives researchers insight into the novel and diverse adaptations of deep-sea organisms to their surroundings that may hold the key to biological and biomedical advances. Studying the way that hadal organisms have adapted to life in their harsh surroundings could help advance understanding in many different areas of research, from diabetes treatments to improved laundry detergents.
Researchers have already discovered microbes inhabiting deep-sea hydrothermal vents that hold potential as new sources of antibiotics and anti-cancer drugs. The discovery presents opportunities for further research on the role of trenches both as a source through volcanism and other processes and a sink in the planetary carbon cycle that could influence the way scientists eventually come to understand and predict the impacts of human-generated greenhouse gases and global climate change.
The development of new deep-sea technology, from submersibles to cameras to sensors and samplers, will provide greater opportunity for scientists to systematically investigate trench ecosystems over extended periods of time. This will eventually give us a better understanding of earthquakes and geophysical processes, revise how scientists understand the global carbon cycle, provide avenues for biomedical research, and potentially contribute new insights into the evolution of life on earth. These same technological advances will also create new capabilities for scientists to study the entire ocean, from remote coastlines to the ice-covered Arctic Ocean.
Trenches are long, narrow depressions on the seafloor that form at the boundary of tectonic plates where one plate is pushed, or subducts, beneath another. The deepest parts of the ocean are found in trenches—at more than 35, feet nearly 11, meters , Challenger Deep is a part of the Mariana Trench, where the Pacific Plate is subducting beneath the Philippine Plate.follow
Strong earthquakes shake Hawaii's Big Island near volcano
Andy Bowen has been developing robotic deep-sea technology for many years, starting his career at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in…. It took a village of engineers to build a completely new type of unmanned deep-sea robot that can reach the…. Provides researchers access to some of the most remote areas on Earth, in autonomous or remotely operated mode. What are ocean trenches? How are trenches formed? What is it like in a trench? How does life survive there? What do we know about trenches?