Husband, Father, Worker

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Luke's account makes no mention of him being visited by angels Mary and various others instead receive similar apparitions , the Massacre of the Innocents, or of a visit to Egypt. The last time Joseph appears in person in any Gospel book is in the story of the Passover visit to the Temple in Jerusalem when Jesus is 12 years old, found only in Luke. No mention is made of him thereafter.

Christian tradition represents Mary as a widow during the adult ministry of her son. Joseph is not mentioned as being present at the Wedding at Cana at the beginning of Jesus' mission, nor at the Passion at the end. If he had been present at the Crucifixion , he would under Jewish custom have been expected to take charge of Jesus' body, but this role is instead performed by Joseph of Arimathea. Nor would Jesus have entrusted his mother to the care of John the Apostle if her husband had been alive. While none of the Gospels mentions Joseph as present at any event during Jesus' adult ministry, the synoptic Gospels share a scene in which the people of Nazareth, Jesus' hometown, doubt Jesus' status as a prophet because they know his family.

In Mark , they call Jesus "Mary's son" instead of naming his father. In Matthew , the townspeople call Jesus "the carpenter's son," again without naming his father. Matthew —55 In Luke "And Jesus himself began to be about thirty years of age, being as was supposed the son of Joseph, which was [the son] of Heli.

Joseph appears in Luke as the father of Jesus and in a "variant reading in Matthew". According to Matthew "Jacob begat Joseph the husband of Mary", while according to Luke , Joseph is said to be "the son of Heli ". The variances between the genealogies given in Matthew and Luke are explained in a number of ways; one possibility is that Matthew's genealogy traces Jesus' legal descent, according to Jewish law , through Joseph; while Luke's genealogy traces his actual physical descent through Mary, [8] [14].

In the Gospels, Joseph's occupation is mentioned only once. The Gospel of Matthew [] asks about Jesus:. Other scholars have argued that tekton could equally mean a highly skilled craftsman in wood or the more prestigious metal, perhaps running a workshop with several employees, and noted sources recording the shortage of skilled artisans at the time.

Analysis of the landscape and other evidence suggest that in Joseph's lifetime Nazareth was "oriented towards" the nearby city, [25] which had an overwhelmingly Jewish population although with many signs of Hellenization , [26] and historians have speculated that Joseph and later Jesus too might have traveled daily to work on the rebuilding. Specifically the large theatre in the city has been suggested, although this has aroused much controversy over dating and other issues. The name "Joseph" is found almost exclusively in the genealogies and the infancy narratives.

The Eastern Orthodox Church , which names Joseph's first wife as Salome, holds that Joseph was a widower and merely betrothed, but never married, to Mary, [31] and that references to Jesus' "brothers" are to children of Joseph and Salome. The position of the Catholic Church , derived from the writings of Jerome , is that Joseph was the husband of Mary, but that references to Jesus' "brothers" should be understood to mean cousins or step-brothers. Such usage is prevalent throughout history, and occurs elsewhere in the Bible. Abraham 's nephew Lot Genesis was referred to as his brother Genesis , as was Jacob 's uncle Laban Genesis Jesus himself frequently used the word "brother" as a generic term for one's fellow man.

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This custom has continued into modern times, with close friends, colleagues, and fellow churchgoers often called "brothers and sisters. In both cases, the church doctrine of the Perpetual Virginity means that Joseph and Mary never had sexual relations. The Protestant churches, following the tenet of Virgin Birth but not that of Perpetual Virginity, hold no strong views on the subject. The term kiddushin , which refers to the first part of a two-part marriage, is frequently translated as "betrothal".

Couples who fulfil the requirements of the kiddushin are married, until death or divorce.

Saint Joseph - Wikipedia

The canonical gospels created a problem: they stated clearly that Mary was a virgin when she conceived Jesus, and that Joseph was not his father; yet Joseph's paternity was essential to establish Jesus' Davidic descent. The theological situation was complicated by the gospel references to Jesus' "brothers and sisters" repeated in Paul, where James is called the "brother of Christ" , and by the fact that Jesus was described unambiguously by John and Matthew as "Joseph's son" and "the carpenter's son.

The first to offer a solution was the apocryphal Protoevangelium of James , written about AD. The original gospels never refer to Joseph's age, but the author presents him as an old man chosen by lot i. Jesus' brothers are presented as Joseph's children by an earlier marriage, and his years and righteousness explain why he has not yet had sex with his wife: "I received her by lot as my wife, and she is not yet my wife, but she has conceived by the Holy Spirit. The Protoevangelium was extremely popular, but it leaves open the possibility that Joseph might have had relations with Mary after the birth of Jesus "she is not yet my wife A few centuries later the developing doctrine that Mary was a virgin not only at the time of the conception and birth of Christ, but throughout her life, meant that this possibility had to be excluded.

Joseph's death at the age of , attended by angels and asserting the perpetual virginity of Mary , takes up approximately half the story. James and his siblings were not children of Mary but were Joseph's children from a previous marriage. After Joseph's first wife died, many years later when he was eighty, "he took Mary mother of Jesus ".

The Catholic Encyclopedia citing the texts contained in the apocryphal writings writes that:. When forty years of age, Joseph married a woman called Melcha or Escha by some, Salome by others; they lived forty-nine years together and had six children, two daughters and four sons, the youngest of whom was James the Less, "the Lord's brother". A year after his wife's death, as the priests announced through Judea that they wished to find in the tribe of Judah a respectable man to espouse Mary, then twelve to fourteen years of age.

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Joseph, who was at the time ninety years old, went up to Jerusalem among the candidates; a miracle manifested the choice God had made of Joseph, and two years later the Annunciation took place. These dreams, as St. Jerome styles them [ Joseph was an old man at the time of marriage with the Mother of God. Josephology , the theological study of Saint Joseph, is one of the most recent theological disciplines. Together with the Blessed Virgin Mary and the Child Jesus , Joseph is one of the three members of the Holy Family ; since he only appears in the birth narratives of the Gospels, Jesus is depicted as a child when with him.

In , Pope Francis had his name added to the three other Eucharistic Prayers. March 19, Saint Joseph's Day, has been the principal feast day of Saint Joseph in Western Christianity [61] [62] since the 10th century, and is celebrated by Catholics, Anglicans , many Lutherans and other denominations. In the Roman Catholic church, the Feast of St. Joseph 19 March is a solemnity first class if using the Tridentine calendar , and is transferred to another date if impeded i. Popular customs among Christians of various liturgical traditions observing Saint Joseph's Day are attending Mass or the Divine Service , wearing red-coloured clothing, carrying dried fava beans that have been blessed , and assembling home altars dedicated to Saint Joseph.

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According to legend, there was a severe drought at the time, and the people prayed for their patron saint to bring them rain. They promised that if God answered their prayers through Joseph's intercession, they would prepare a large feast to honor him. The rain did come, and the people of Sicily prepared a large banquet for their patron saint. The fava bean was the crop which saved the population from starvation and is a traditional part of Saint Joseph's Day altars and traditions.

Giving food to the needy is a Saint Joseph's Day custom. In some communities it is traditional to wear red clothing and eat a Neapolitan pastry known as a zeppola created in by Don Pasquale Pinatauro in Napoli on Saint Joseph's Day. Upon a typical Saint Joseph's Day altar, people place flowers, limes, candles, wine, fava beans, specially prepared cakes, breads, and cookies as well as other meatless dishes , and zeppole.

Foods are traditionally served containing bread crumbs to represent saw dust since Joseph was a carpenter. Because the feast occurs during Lent, traditionally no meat was allowed on the celebration table. The altar usually has three tiers, to represent the Trinity. In , Pope Pius IX declared Joseph patron of the Universal Church and instituted another feast, a solemnity with an octave , to be held in his honour on Wednesday in the second week after Easter.

This date coincides with the secular International Workers' Day promoted by the labour movement and left-wing parties since the s, and reflects Joseph's status as patron saint of workers. Catholic and other Christian teachings and stories about or relating to Joseph and the Holy Family frequently stress his patience, persistence, courage, and hard work. The Feast of Saint Joseph the Worker 1 May is an Optional Memorial, and so is omitted if impeded, unless the day is raised to a higher rank because Saint Joseph is the patron of the church, diocese, place, or institution.

However, the 1 May celebration is 1st class in the Tridentine calendar, so in it Saint Joseph the Worker was celebrated on 2 May in because 1 May was Ascension Thursday and in because 1 May was in the Easter octave. Having died in the "arms of Jesus and Mary" according to Catholic tradition, he is considered the model of the pious believer who receives grace at the moment of death, in other words, the patron of a happy death. Saint Joseph is the patron saint of a number of cities, regions and countries, among them the Americas , Austria , Belgium , Canada , China , Croatia , Indonesia , Mexico , Korea , Peru , the Philippines and Vietnam , as well as of families, fathers, expectant mothers pregnant women , explorers, pilgrims, travelers, immigrants , house sellers and buyers, craftsmen, engineers, and working people in general.

Many cities, towns, and locations are named after Saint Joseph. Joseph is the patron saint of the New World ; and of the regions Carinthia , Styria , Tyrol , Sicily ; and of several main cities and dioceses.

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