China and India: Prospects for Peace (Contemporary Asia in the World)
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Yet a number of features emblematic of that transformation have peaked.
Population peaked in at million and has continued to decrease. This puts at risk the international trading system that underpins prosperity in the global economy.
The European Union, China and others have threatened to retaliate as the US measures are implemented. More than any other region, Asia relies on open markets and confidence in the multilateral system for economic and political security. About this issue One of the biggest questions in global affairs is how a rising China will shape the world beyond its borders. What kind of influence will China seek, how will it seek it, and to what ends?
About this issue Japan is repositioning. Domestically, with the collapse of his electoral support base, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe no longer looks like Teflon man. Yet the main opposition to the LDP at the national level, the Democratic Party, remains in tatters, its future uncertain. About this issue The business of national strategy-making is increasingly fraught as many states today lack compelling national narratives such as empire, religion, independence, or the Cold War whereby to order strategic purpose.
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- China and India: Prospects for Peace by Jonathan Holslag.
Thus, strategies themselves have become the object of national and international contest. At the same time, states are faced with a wide range of interconnected risks and threats, making the strategic underpinning of diplomatic practice even more crucial than before, especially because the common reaction to complexity and uncertainty is to seek refuge in tactics. This challenge is especially acute in strategically dynamic regions like East Asia. About this issue The Trans-Pacific Partnership is dead; the largest free-trade zone in the world, the European Union, has splintered; and the global economy is on the way to notching up a decade of sub-par growth in trade and output.
Given the backlash in developed polities against globalisation, the economic and political juncture at which Asian countries find themselves may not seem conducive to a push for further integration. But it is imperative that integration proceed. Dealing with China today, these concerns seem quaint. Strategists are probably nostalgic for a rising power that chooses to free ride on an existing order rather than change it.
About this issue To remain a wealthy, peaceful, high-tech advanced society, business as usual in Japan will not do.rocalixis.gq
Ashley South - Independent Writer and Consultant
Japan needs reinventing. A shrinking and ageing population has made priorities of two issues—maximising the potential of women in the workforce, and the need to have a serious debate about immigration. The Abe government has brought political stability, but without an effective opposition, the health of the political system is under question.
Japanese companies need new dynamism to re-establish themselves as global corporate leaders. To effect the changes that are needed will require Super Mario strength and determination see cover. About this issue Rapid economic changes have fundamentally challenged the traditional division of labour of women working in the private, family domain and men in the public sphere of commerce and politics.
Old discriminatory norms and practices persist and are further complicated by regional political and economic developments. This issue of East Asia Forum Quarterly brings together prominent scholars of gender studies from various countries and disciplines to explore the diversity and complexity of issues of gender and sexuality in contemporary Asia. About this issue Most of the world's population lives in middle-income countries - neither very rich nor very poor.
While middle income countries are full of economic opportunities, the way up to higher incomes and living standards is not straightforward.
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This issue's Asian Review includes essays on the lessons from Fukushima, the geo-political consequences of China's rise, Australia's leaders over the years and their approach to Asia. The aphorism caught on, a worry for policymakers and a puzzle for debate among the analysts. The essays in EAFQ 8. About this issue The ageing of populations throughout the region and changing community expectations about the provision of public services, will see increased demand for health and aged care.
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One common theme highlighted in the articles is that the economies throughout the region need to begin preparing for the challenges and opportunities of the future. This EAFQ's Asian Review feature deals with important and related issues: sex and gender in Japan; the future of Thai politics; Asia's response to the challenge of climate change and opportunities for green growth in Asia.
The coming decades will present significant intergenerational policy challenges, as well as opportunities, for economies throughout the Asia Pacific region. Economic prosperity and its sustainability will be influenced by how we respond to a number of core drivers, including the re-emergence of Asia as a major centre of the global economy, rapid demographic change, environmental pressures and technological advances.
These drivers will put additional pressure on the fiscal sustainability and on the institutions that have contributed greatly to economic performance to date. These things are often taken for granted but will have significant implications for future economic prosperity throughout the region. Already a growth engine of the global economy, Asia will be home to the largest middle class population in the world before too long. The associated opportunities and the risks make it necessary that we have the right global, regional and country policy frameworks.
The Asian century will also see rapid demographic change. The ageing of populations throughout the region and changing community expectations about the provision of public services, will see increased demand for health and aged care. The fiscal policy responses to these pressures are yet to be figured out.
Climate change and the responses to it will also define this century. To avoid catastrophic climate change substantial and sustained reductions of greenhouse gas emissions are needed. Unfortunately some climate change will now be unavoidable and economies will also need to adapt to higher temperatures. How countries, such as China, transition to high-income status will also be crucial. Policy frameworks that help facilitate industrial upgrading, innovation and investment in human capital will be important to drive productivity and avoid the so-called middle income trap.
2. Governance challenges for businesses
These are the questions with which this issue of East Asia Forum Quarterly deals. The policy actions taken or missed today will have a significant bearing on future outcomes. About this issue Political and security rivalry has badly damaged the bilateral relationship, yet major trade and investment ties continue to fuel the economies of both China and Japan, and the wider Asian region.
Can this economic relationship alleviate China-Japan rivalry? Or will the political and security tensions between these two states lead to conflict in Asia? What will it take for China and Japan to negotiate a mutually acceptable regional order? The China—Japan relationship has made headlines in recent years.
Political and security rivalry has badly damaged the bilateral relationship, yet major trade and investment ties continue to fuel the economies of both China and Japan, and the wider Asian region. Can this economic relationship alleviate China—Japan rivalry? Yet Chinese President Xi Jinping and Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe have also used backchannel diplomacy and two face-to-face meetings to lift the relationship from its nadir in — Even more important are the trade, investment and growing people-to-people ties that serve as ballast in the relationship.
South Asia: peace, prosperity and regional cooperation
Yet the relationship is now at a crossroads. Japan can no longer invest in China as a low-cost manufacturing base, as China shifts towards higher-value-added manufacturing and services. This special issue brings together top experts from China and Japan, as well as voices from beyond the region, to offer their perspectives on what is needed to fix the relationship. They emphasise the importance of diplomacy and economics, the role of leadership in shaping domestic expectations and the need for both sides to acknowledge squarely the positive and negative aspects of the interdependent history between China and Japan.
About this issue The emerging powers of China, India and Indonesia face the twin challenges of unprecedented economic and social transformation, and crafting an approach to manage their new weight in the world, including expectations among the established powers in North America and Europe about how they should share the burdens of international leadership. So what's the way forward? Can like-minded middle powers help to shape a stable order? The emerging powers of China, India and Indonesia face the twin challenges of unprecedented economic and social transformation, and crafting an approach to manage their new weight in the world, including expectations among the established powers in North America and Europe about how they should share the burdens of international leadership.
The consequent tensions are most evident currently over territorial issues in the South China Sea but there will be others. Asian political systems, and political leadership, come in many shapes. Political dynasties, even in democratic polities, are a resilient feature. In Japan, Prime Minister Abe, with his three arrows, comes from a political line with impeccable conservative form.
President Xi is a princeling of the Chinese revolution, set on a course of deep economic and political reform that apparently eschews overturning its authoritarian fundamentals. Modi and Jokowi are remarkable—the directly-elected leaders of large democracies, trying to break out of the mould of past leadership style and substance.
They all face uphill battles in achieving their ambition for reform, while protecting their base of domestic political support. Japan excepted, they lag in terms of military power and technology. What new structures are needed to assist the transit of Asian power, if any? The sharp edge of these questions is about the evolution of the relationship between the united States and china. About this issue Devoting an edition to minorities in Asia can appear a Sisyphean task. Discussion of the status of minority groups and government policies toward them is frequently politicised by history, memory, war, border politics, and broken promises.
This snapshot of the status of ethnic and religious minority groups in the region highlights evolving policy frameworks and signs of progress in extending equal rights and protections to all citizens. Progress in protecting minority rights varies greatly across the region. Some countries are going backwards. In other countries, territorially concentrated minorities still struggle against the perceived injustices of majority rule.
Patricio Abinales explains why, in the Philippines, a misreading of history continues to obstruct a peace deal with the Moro of Mindanao. The question of Tibet is similarly fraught with competing versions of history and national identities. Robert Barnett suggests how clearer problem analysis could point the way to a resolution. Eun Jeong Soh outlines the difficulties for minorities in the Korean peninsula, where ethnic nationalism is hardening and ideas of multiculturalism have failed to take root.
Nicholas Farrelly shows that democratisation in Myanmar has not dislodged notions of a single centralised union, where minority claims to self-determination and autonomy are vigorously rejected and forcibly kept in check. Sebastien Carrier reminds us that not all minority concerns are political. Among the Hmong in China, for example, there are concerns for the protection of cultural rights, which are promised under the law but inconsistently delivered in practice. About this issue The first step in understanding Chinese state-owned enterprises is the distinction that we need to make between the giant, central SOEs dominating strategic industries from Beijing and the tens of thousands of provincially and locally owned SOEs.
While SOEs remain a prominent feature of the Chinese economy, they now account for only 30 per cent of industrial output and even the huge central SOEs are supposed to run at arm's length from the state-an issue that is currently a focus of China's Third Plenum reform agenda.
The World to Come: ASEAN's Political and Economic Prospects in the New Century
In our regular Asian Review on major trends and developments, we cover the crucible of terror in Pakistan, the global growth of yoga, the Asian middle class and what it is not, and what's to become of the Australian economy now the party from the Chinese commodity boom is over. The relationship between the state and economic enterprise is a central choice that governments have to make in all economies.
Some argue that in all the economies of Asia that have enjoyed or are now prosecuting successful industrialisation—Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Indonesia, India and China, for example—the state has played a central role through active participation in economic enterprise. To others this is a controversial conclusion and they posit an alternative view, that successful Asian industrialisation is a story of removing the shackles of the state from economic enterprise.